A Java library for computation on permutations and sequences



JavaPermutationTools (JPT): A Java library for computation on permutations and sequences

JavaPermutationTools - A Java library for computation on permutations and sequences

Copyright (C) 2018-2024 Vincent A. Cicirello.


API documentation:

Publications About the LibraryDOI
Packages and ReleasesMaven Central GitHub release (latest by date)
Build Statusbuild docs CodeQL
JaCoCo Test Coveragecoverage branch coverage
SecuritySnyk security score Snyk Known Vulnerabilities
Other InformationGitHub style
SupportGitHub Sponsors Liberapay Ko-Fi

How to Cite

If you use this library in your research, please cite the following paper:

Cicirello, Vincent A (2018). JavaPermutationTools: A Java Library of Permutation Distance Metrics. Journal of Open Source Software, 3(31), 950. .


The JavaPermutationTools (JPT) library provides Java classes and interfaces, etc that enable representing and generating permutations and sequences, as well as performing computation on permutations and sequences. It includes implementations of a variety of permutation distance metrics as well as distance metrics on sequences (i.e., Strings, arrays, and other ordered data types).

Java 17+

We currently support Java 17+. See the following table for mapping between library version and minimum supported Java version.

versionJava requirements
4.w.x to 5.y.zJava 17+
3.x.yJava 11+
1.x.y to 2.x.yJava 8+

The jar files of the library are released via Maven Central, GitHub Packages, and GitHub Releases.

Versioning Scheme

The JPT uses Semantic Versioning with version numbers of the form: MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH, where differences in MAJOR correspond to incompatible API changes, differences in MINOR correspond to introduction of backwards compatible new functionality, and PATCH corresponds to backwards compatible bug fixes.

Building the Library (with Maven)

The JavaPermutationTools library is built using Maven. The root of the repository contains a Maven pom.xml. To build the library, execute mvn package at the root of the repository, which will compile all classes, run all tests, run javadoc, and generate jar files of the library, the sources, and the javadocs. All build outputs will then be found in the directory target.

To include generation of a code coverage report during the build, execute mvn package -Pcoverage at the root of the repository to enable a Maven profile that executes JaCoCo during the test phase. The JaCoCo report will also be found in the target directory.

To run all static analysis tools (i.e., SpotBugs, Find Security Bugs, refactor-first), execute mvn package -Panalysis to enable a Maven profile that executes the various static analysis tools that we are using. The SpotBugs html report will be found in the target directory, or you can use the SpotBugs GUI with: mvn spotbugs:gui -Panalysis. The refactor-first report will be found in the target/site directory.

To run all of the above: mvn package -P "analysis,coverage".

Example Programs

There are several example programs available in a separate repository: cicirello/jpt-examples. The examples repository contains example usage of several of the classes of the library. Each of the examples contains detailed comments within the source code explaining the example. Running the examples without reading the source comments is not advised. Some of the example in the examples repository are based on the experiments from published papers that have either used the library directly, or which led to some of the code in the library.

Java Modules

This library provides a Java module, org.cicirello.jpt. To use in your project, add the following to your

module {
	requires org.cicirello.jpt;

This module includes the org.cicirello.permutations and org.cicirello.sequences packages as well as their subpackages. See the API documentation for details of all packages included in this module.

Beginning with version 3.0.0, randomization and other math utilities, and some generic utilities, have been moved to a pair of new libraries ρμ and org.cicirello.core, which are now dependencies of JavaPermutationTools. Your dependency manager (see next section) will handle downloading these for you.

If you are directly utilizing the functionality of the dependencies, then you may instead need the following:

module {
	requires org.cicirello.jpt;
	requires org.cicirello.rho_mu;
	requires org.cicirello.core;

Importing the Library from Maven Central

Add this to the dependencies section of your pom.xml, replacing the version number with the version you want to use.


Importing the Library from Github Packages

If you'd prefer to import from Github Packages, rather than Maven Central, then: (1) add the dependency as indicated in previous section above, and (2) add the following to the repositories section of your pom.xml:

  <name>GitHub cicirello Apache Maven Packages</name>

Downloading Jar Files

If you don't use a dependency manager that supports importing from Maven Central, or if you simply prefer to download manually, prebuilt jars are also attached to each GitHub Release. If you manually download jar files, make sure you also get the relevant versions of the dependencies. The simplest way to do this is to import from Maven Central, which will obtain the relevant dependencies automatically.


The JPT library is licensed under the GNU General Public License 3.0.


If you would like to contribute in any way, such as reporting bugs, suggesting new functionality, or code contributions such as bug fixes or implementations of new functionality, then start by reading the contribution guidelines. This project has adopted the Contributor Covenant Code of Conduct.